Power can be carbon free (think wind, solar, hydro) but liquid fuels and petrochemicals need a source of carbon. As we move towards lower cost renewable energy, we must consider the impact on fuels and chemicals production. Electrification will not produce chemicals and it may not cover all necessary transport sectors in the targeted timeframe. Low carbon fuel alternatives will be key for the aviation, shipping and heavy vehicles sectors and an alternate source of chemicals will be needed. A variety of CCU technologies exist today that can help and enable a smooth transition to a strong low carbon economy.